Maslow: Holistic-Dynamic Theory
Psychology of Personality
Lecture, Chapter 10
Overview of Holistic-Dynamic Theory
lAssumes that the whole person is constantly being motivated by a need.
lAssumes people have potential to grow toward psychological health.
lThe only way people can reach psychological health is to have all more basic needs met.
lMaslow believed that humans have a higher nature than what psychoanalysis and behaviorism suggest.
lAbraham Maslow was born in Manhattan into a Jewish family as the oldest of seven children.
lAbraham’s life was marked with hatred toward his mother, whom he described as selfish and incapable of love.
lAbraham was highly intelligent but was frequently bored with his scholastic pursuits, changing them often.
lAbraham received a Ph.D. in psychology and worked with prominent philosophers in the field.
lIn his work with the Northern Blackfoot Indians in Canada, Abraham determined that certain needs were common to everyone.
lAbraham’s life was characterized by both physical and psychological challenges, which contributed to his death of a heart attack in 1970.
Maslow’s View of Motivation
lHolistic approach to motivation
lMotivation is usually complex
lPeople are continually motivated by one need or another.
lAll people everywhere are motivated by the same basic needs.
lNeeds can be arranged on a hierarchy.
Hierarchy of Needs
lLove and belongingness needs
lReversed order of needs
lExpressive and coping behavior
lDeprivation of needs
lHigher vs. lower needs
lValues: being values or “metaneeds”
Characteristics of Self-Actualization
lMore efficient perception of reality
lAcceptance of self, others, and nature
lSpontaneity, simplicity, and naturalness
lThe need for privacy
lContinued freshness of appreciation
lThe peak experience
lProfound interpersonal relations
lThe democratic character structure
lDiscrimination between means and ends
lPhilosophical sense of humor
lResistance to enculturation
lCapable of B-love, love for the essence or “Being” of the other, and no longer motivated by D-love, deficiency love.
Philosophy of Science
lHumanistic, holistic approach
lMore emphasis on the individual
lInstill science with human values, emotion, and ritual.
lEncouraged a Taoistic attitude, noninterfering, passive, and receptive.
The Jonah Complex
lJonah Complex: or fear of success
lReasons people run from greatness:
lGoal: to follow the client’s stage in his/her hierarchy of needs.
lMost clients are seeking love and belongingness.
lPurpose: to develop a warm, positive relationship with the client so that needs of love and belongingness are met and confidence/self-worth can be established.
lDid Maslow use science in his theory development? Was his theory able to generate research, be falsified, organize data, guide action, be internally consistent, and be parsimonious?
lWhere does Maslow’s theory fall on the basic issues concerning the nature of humanity?
–Determinism vs. free choice
–Pessimism vs. optimism
–Causality vs. teleology
–Conscious vs. unconscious
–Social vs. biological influences
–Uniqueness vs. similarities