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Psychology of Learning

Exam II Review


Chapter 6 – 20 questions


Gestalt psychology: unified wholes; whole is greater than the sum of its parts; role of insight in learning; origin in perceptions; figure and ground; leveling, sharpening, and normalizing; Wortheimer, Koffka, and Kohler


Hebb: role central nervous system; definition of learning; plasticity; sensitization and habituation; Hebb’s Rule


Tolman: purposive behaviorism; importance of cognitions as intervening variables; latent learning; cognitive maps; know 4 major principles (behavior is purposive, cognitive, reinforced, and molar)


Chapter 7 – 25 questions


Bruner: categories as rules; meaning as central concept; constructivism; conjunctive, disjunctive, and relational concepts; coding system


Piaget: adaptation, schemas, assimilation, and accommodation; stages of development; conservation; rules of play; internalization; definition of intelligence; object concept and deferred imitation; constructivism; forces that shape human development (equilibration, maturation, active experience, and social interaction); world view


Vygotsky: focus on forces outside the child; social, egocentric, and inner speech; scaffolding; role of social interaction; world view


Chapter 8 – 5 questions


Rise of computers


Parallel distributed processing computer (PDP)


Neural networks


Comparison with other approaches


Artificial intelligence